Social-Emotional Contexts of Adolescent and Young Adult Smoking Patterns

Also known as

Piece by Piece: Making Health Connections


Cigarette smoking among adolescents and young adults remains one of the most important public health challenges. Almost all smokers begin smoking while in their adolescent years, but smoking becomes entrenched during the young adult years. Understanding more about the factors that promote or protect against smoking progression and nicotine dependence may help us to develop more effective interventions. Also important is understanding how the transition from adolescence to young adulthood, a transition that brings multiple life changes and heightened risk for behavioral problems, influences smoking patterns that have been set in motion during adolescence. This program project provides an in-depth, multi-method study of the patterns and predictors of smoking patterns from experimentation onward, from adolescence through young adulthood.

This continuation builds on and extends our previous work by continuing to follow a high-risk cohort of individuals, first identified and characterized during mid-adolescence, and who are now in young adulthood, through their early twenties, the period of highest risk for establishment of smoking and dependence. We are maintaining our focus on the social-emotional contexts that may influence smoking, and extend this to explore promising genetic markers for the development of dependence from early stages of smoking onward. The projects are linked conceptually through their common consideration of factors that influence the patterns of smoking from adolescence through young adulthood, and methodologically, through their use of a common cohort of participants. Our overriding interest is in identifying, describing, and predicting patterns of progression of smoking and nicotine dependence, considering the dynamic interplay of genetic, social, and emotional contexts. Our program project comprises four research studies, a supplemental study and three cores.

The research studies are:

  1. Patterns and Predictors of Smoking from Adolescence to Young Adulthood (Robin Mermelstein and Lisa Dierker, co-principal investigators [PIs])
  2. Proximal Contexts of Young Adult Smoking Patterns (Robin Mermelstein, PI)
  3. Emotional Indices of Withdrawal in Young Adult Smokers (Jon Kassel, PI)
  4. Genetic Risk Markers for Smoking Progression (Robin Mermelstein, Dale Cannon, and Robert Weiss, co-PIs)

The supplemental study is Use of New Emerging Tobacco Products in Young Adults (Robin Mermelstein, PI).

That research is supported by these cores:

A. Scientific/Administrative Core (Robin Mermelstein, director)
B. Participant Interaction Core (Kathleen Diviak, director)
C. Data Management, Measurement, and Statistics Core (Don Hedeker, director)

Research Partner(s)

Principal investigator
Start date
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About this grant

This is a research program project, which encompasses four studies, a supplemental study and three cores, and continues the work of the previous program project called Social-Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns.

Related publications

See all publications supported by this grant on this PubMed list.

Cursio JF, Mermelstein RJ, Hedeker D. Latent trait shared-parameter mixed models for missing ecological momentary assessment data. Stat Med. 2019;38(4):660–673. doi:10.1002/sim.7989

Selya AS, Dierker L, Rose JS, Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ. The Role of Nicotine Dependence in E-Cigarettes' Potential for Smoking Reduction. Nicotine Tob Res. 2018;20(10):1272–1277. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntx160

Selya AS, Cannon DS, Weiss RB, et al. The role of nicotinic receptor genes (CHRN) in the pathways of prenatal tobacco exposure on smoking behavior among young adult light smokers. Addict Behav. 2018;84:231–237. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.05.001

Lin X, Mermelstein RJ, Hedeker D. A 3-level Bayesian mixed effects location scale model with an application to ecological momentary assessment data. Stat Med. 2018;37(13):2108–2119. doi:10.1002/sim.7627

Selya AS, Rose JS, Dierker L, Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ. Evaluating the mutual pathways among electronic cigarette use, conventional smoking and nicotine dependence. Addiction. 2018;113(2):325–333. doi:10.1111/add.14013

Hertel AW, Mermelstein RJ. Smoker Identity Development Among Adolescents Who Smoke. Psychol Addict Behav. 2016 Jun;30(4):475-83. [See abstract.]

Piasecki TM, Hedeker D, Dierker LC, Mermelstein RJ. Progression of Nicotine Dependence, Mood Level, and Mood Variability in Adolescent Smokers. Psychol Addict Behav. 2016 Jun;30(4):484-93. [See abstract.]

Schuster RM, Mermelstein RJ, Hedeker D. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Working Memory Under Conditions of Simultaneous Marijuana and Tobacco Use. Addiction. 2016 Feb 9. [See abstract.]

Cannon DS, Mermelstein RJ, Medina TR, Pugach O, Hedeker D, Weiss RB. CYP2A6 Effects on Subjective Reactions to Initial Smoking Attempt. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 May;18(5):637-41. [See abstract.]

Gonzalez R, Schuster RM, Mermelstein RM, Diviak KR. The role of decision-making in cannabis-related problems among young adults. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Sep 1;154:214-21. [See abstract.]

Crane NA, Langenecker SA, Mermelstein RJ. Gender differences in the associations among marijuana use, cigarette use, and symptoms of depression during adolescence and young adulthood. Addict Behav. 2015 Oct;49:33-9. [See abstract.]

Schuster RM, Mermelstein RJ, Hedeker D. Acceptability and feasibility of a visual working memory task in an ecological momentary assessment paradigm. Psychol Assess. 2015 Dec;27(4):1463-70. [See abstract.

Dierker L, Hedeker D, Rose J, Selya A, Mermelstein R. Early emerging nicotine dependence symptoms in adolescence predict daily smoking in young adulthood. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Jun 1;151:267-71. [See abstract.]

Crane NA, Schuster RM, Mermelstein RJ, Gonzalez R. Neuropsychological sex differences associated with age of initiated use among young adult cannabis users. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2015;37(4):389-401. [See abstract.]

Passarotti AM, Crane NA, Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ. Longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood. Addict Behav. 2015 Feb 18;45:301-308. [See abstract.]

Coon H, Piasecki TM, Cook EH, Dunn D, Mermelstein RJ, Weiss RB, Cannon DS. Association of the CHRNA4 neuronal nicotinic receptor subunit gene with frequency of binge drinking in young adults. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Apr;38(4):930-7. [See abstract.]

Selya AS, Wakschlag LS, Dierker LC, Rose JS, Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ. Exploring alternate processes contributing to the association between maternal smoking and the smoking behavior among young adult offspring. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Nov;15(11):1873-82. [See abstract.]

Sokolovsky AW, Mermelstein RJ, Hedeker D. Factors predicting compliance to ecological momentary assessment among adolescent smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Mar;16(3):351-8. [See abstract.]

Dierker L, Selya A, Piasecki T, Rose J, Mermelstein R. Alcohol problems as a signal for sensitivity to nicotine dependence and future smoking. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Oct 1;132(3):688-93. [See abstract.]

Crane NA, Schuster RM, Gonzalez R. Preliminary evidence for a sex-specific relationship between amount of cannabis use and neurocognitive performance in young adult cannabis users. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2013 Oct;19(9):1009-15. [See abstract.]

Pugach O, Hedeker D, Richmond MJ, Sokolovsky A, Mermelstein R. Modeling mood variation and covariation among adolescent smokers: application of a bivariate location-scale mixed-effects model. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 May;16 Suppl 2:S151-8. [See abstract.]

Cannon DS, Mermelstein RJ, Hedeker D, Coon H, Cook EH, McMahon WM, Hamil C, Dunn D, Weiss RB. Effect of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRN) on longitudinal cigarettes per day in adolescents and young adults. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Feb;16(2):137-44. [See abstract.]

Metzger A, Wakschlag LS, Anderson R, Darfler A, Price J, Flores Z, Mermelstein R. Information management strategies within conversations about cigarette smoking: parenting correlates and longitudinal associations with teen smoking. Dev Psychol. 2013 Aug;49(8):1565-78. [See abstract.]

Schuster RM, Hertel AW, Mermelstein R. Cigar, cigarillo, and little cigar use among current cigarette-smoking adolescents. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 May;15(5):925-31.[See abstract.]

Rose JS, Dierker LC, Hedeker D, Mermelstein R. An integrated data analysis approach to investigating measurement equivalence of DSM nicotine dependence symptoms. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Apr 1;129(1-2):25-32. [See abstract.]

Selya AS, Dierker LC, Rose JS, Hedeker D, Tan X, Li R, Mermelstein RJ. Time-varying effects of smoking quantity and nicotine dependence on adolescent smoking regularity. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Mar 1;128(3):230-7. [See abstract.]

Hedeker D, Nordgren R. MIXREGLS: A program for mixed-effects location scale analysis. J Stat Softw. 2013 Mar;52(12):1-38. [See abstract.]

Weinstein SM, Mermelstein RJ. Influences of mood variability, negative moods, and depression on adolescent cigarette smoking. Psychol Addict Behav. 2013 Dec;27(4):1068-78. [See abstract.]

Weinstein SM, Mermelstein RJ. Dynamic associations of negative mood and smoking across the development of smoking in adolescence. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2013;42(5):629-42. [See abstract.]

Liu LC, Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ. Modeling nicotine dependence: an application of a longitudinal IRT model for the analysis of adolescent nicotine dependence syndrome scale. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013;15(2):326-333. [See abstract.]

Richmond MJ, Mermelstein RJ, Wakschlag LS. Direct observations of parenting and real-time negative affect among adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2013;42(5):617-28. [See abstract.]

Zhan W, Dierker LC, Rose JS, Selya A, Mermelstein RJ. The natural course of nicotine dependence symptoms among adolescent smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012 Dec;14(12):1445-52. [See abstract.]

Demirtas H, Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ. Simulation of massive public health data by power polynomials. Stat Med. 2012 Nov 30;31(27):3337-46. [See abstract.]

Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ, Demirtas H. Modeling between-subject and within-subject variances in ecological momentary assessment data using mixed-effects location scale models. Stat Med. 2012 Nov 30;31(27):3328-36. [See abstract.]

Li X, Hedeker D. A three-level mixed-effects location scale model with an application to ecological momentary assessment data. Stat Med. 2012 Nov 20;31(26):3192-210. [See abstract.]

Rose JS, Lee CT, Dierker LC, Selya AS, Mermelstein RJ. Adolescent nicotine dependence symptom profiles and risk for future daily smoking. Addict Behav. 2012 Oct;37(10):1093-100. [See abstract.]

Schuster RM, Crane NA, Mermelstein R, Gonzalez R. The influence of inhibitory control and episodic memory on the risky sexual behavior of young adult cannabis users. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2012 Sep;18(5):827-833. [See abstract.]

Schuster RM, Mermelstein R, Wakschlag L. Gender-specific relationships between depressive symptoms, marijuana use, parental communication and risky sexual behavior in adolescence. J Youth Adolesc. 2012 Aug 29. [See abstract.]

Selya SA, Dierker LC, Rose JS, Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ. Risk factors for adolescent smoking: parental smoking and the mediating role of nicotine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012 Aug 1;124(3):311-8. [See abstract.]

Hertel AW, Mermelstein RJ. Smoker identity and smoking escalation among adolescents. Health Psychol. 2012 Jul;31(4):467-75. [See abstract.]

Richmond MJ, Mermelstein RJ, Metzger A. Heterogeneous friendship affiliation, problem behaviors, and emotional outcomes among high-risk adolescents. Prev Sci. 2012 Jun;13(3):267-77. [See abstract.]

Gonzalez R, Schuster RM, Mermelstein RJ, Vassileva J, Martin EM, Diviak KR. Performance of young adult cannabis users on neurocognitive measures of impulsive behavior and their relationship to symptoms of cannabis use disorders. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2012;34(9):962-76. [See abstract.]

Selya AS, Rose JS, Dierker LC, Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ. A practical guide to calculating Cohen's f(2), a measure of local effect size, from PROC MIXED. Front Psychol. 2012;3:111. [See abstract.]

Lee CT, Rose JS, Engel-Rebitzer E, Selya A, Dierker L. Alcohol dependence symptoms among recent onset adolescent drinkers. Addict Behav. 2011 Dec;36(12):1160-7. [See abstract.]

Sterling KL, Mermelstein R. Examining hookah smoking among a cohort of adolescent ever smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011 Dec;13(12):1202-9. [See abstract.]

Veilleux JC, Kassel JD, Heinz AJ, Braun A, Wardle MC, Greenstein J, et al. Predictors and sequelae of smoking topography over the course of a single cigarette in adolescent light smokers. J Adolesc Health. 2011 Feb;48(2):176-81. [See abstract.]

Wakschlag LS, Metzger A, Darfler A, Ho J, Mermelstein R, Rathouz PJ. The Family Talk About Smoking (FTAS) paradigm: new directions for assessing parent-teen communications about smoking. Nicotine Tob Res. 2011 Feb;13(2):103-12. [See abstract.]

Metzger A, Dawes N, Mermelstein R, Wakschlag L. Longitudinal modeling of adolescents' activity involvement, problem peer associations, and youth smoking. J Appl Dev Psychol. 2011 Jan;32(1):1-9. [See abstract.]

Heinz AJ, Kassel JD, Berbaum M, Mermelstein R. Adolescents' expectancies for smoking to regulate affect predict smoking behavior and nicotine dependence over time. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Sep 1;111(1-2):128-35. [See abstract.]

Colvin PJ, Mermelstein RJ. Adolescents' smoking outcome expectancies and acute emotional responses following smoking. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010;12(12):1203-10. [See abstract.]

See also peer-reviewed articles about this research published during the previous grant period.