Donald Hedeker, PhD

Professor of Biostatistics, University of Chicago

Dr. Don Hedeker is professor of biostatistics in the Department of Public Health Sciences of the University of Chicago. He has been a co-investigator of Dr. Robin Mermelstein's studies of smoking behaviors in adolescents and young adults since the early 1990s.

His chief expertise is in the development and use of advanced statistical methods for clustered and longitudinal data, with particular emphasis on mixed-effects models. He is the primary author of four freeware computer programs for mixed-effects analysis: MIXREG for normal-theory models, MIXOR for dichotomous and ordinal outcomes, MIXNO for nominal outcomes, and MIXPREG for counts. These programs and manuals are available at

In 2000, Dr. Hedeker was named a Fellow of the American Statistical Association, the highest honor in his field. He was also recognized as a University Scholar by the University of Illinois that same year. He is an associate editor for Statistics in Medicine and Journal of Statistical Software. He has been the principal investigator (PI), co-PI, or co-investigator on many research grants funded by the National Institutes of Health and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Dr. Hedeker received his Ph.D. in quantitative psychology from The University of Chicago in 1989.

Research Interests

Random effects models and longitudinal data analysis

Recent and Noteworthy Publications

View PubMed for a larger selection of Dr. Hedeker's publications.

Selya AS, Dierker L, Rose JS, Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ. Early-Emerging Nicotine Dependence Has Lasting and Time-Varying Effects on Adolescent Smoking Behavior. Prev Sci. 2016 Jun 16. [Epub ahead of print] [See abstract.]

Schuster RM, Mermelstein RJ, Hedeker D. Acceptability and feasibility of a visual working memory task in an ecological momentary assessment paradigm. Psychol Assess. 2015 Dec;27(4):1463-70. [See abstract.]

Passarotti AM, Crane NA, Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ. Longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood. Addict Behav. 2015 Feb 18;45:301-308. [See abstract.]

Cannon DS, Medina TR, Mermelstein RJ, Hedeker D, Bakian AV, Coon H, Cook EH, Hamil C, Weiss RB. CYP2A6 longitudinal effects in young smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2016 Feb;18(2):196-203. [See abstract.]

Pellegrini CA, Steglitz J, Johnston W, Warnick J, Adams T, McFadden HG, Siddique J, Hedeker D, Spring B. Design and protocol of a randomized multiple behavior change trial: Make Better Choices 2 (MBC2). Contemp Clin Trials. 2015 Mar;41:85-92. [See abstract.]

Selya AS, Updegrove N, Rose JS, Dierker L, Tan X, Hedeker D, Li R, Mermelstein RJ. Nicotine-dependence-varying effects of smoking events on momentary mood changes among adolescents. Addict Behav. Epub 2014 Sep 28. 2015 Feb;41:65-71. [See abstract.]

Hedeker D. Methods for Multilevel Ordinal Data in Prevention Research. Prev Sci. 2015 Oct;16(7):997-1006. [See abstract.]

Huh J, Shin H, Leventhal AM, Spruijt-Metz D, Abramova Z, Cerrada C, Hedeker D, Dunton G. Momentary negative moods and being with friends precede cigarette use among Korean American emerging adults. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Sep;16(9):1248-54. [See abstract.]

Siddique J, Harel O, Crespi CM, Hedeker D. Binary variable multiple-model multiple imputation to address missing data mechanism uncertainty: application to a smoking cessation trial. Stat Med. 2014 Jul 30;33(17):3013-28. [See abstract.]

Dunton GF, Huh J, Leventhal AM, Riggs N, Hedeker D, Spruijt-Metz D, Pentz MA. Momentary assessment of affect, physical feeling states, and physical activity in children. Health Psychol. 2014 Mar;33(3):255-63. [See abstract.]

Smith-Ray RL, Hughes SL, Prohaska TR, Little DM, Jurivich DA, Hedeker D. Impact of cognitive training on balance and gait in older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2013 Nov 5. [Epub ahead of print] [See abstract.]

Moller AC, Buscemi J, McFadden HG, Hedeker D, Spring B. Financial motivation undermines potential enjoyment in an intensive diet and activity intervention. J Behav Med. 2013 Oct 19. [Epub ahead of print]

Sokolovsky AW, Mermelstein RJ, Hedeker D. Factors predicting compliance to ecological momentary assessment among adolescent smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Mar;16(3):351-8. [See abstract.]

Pugach O, Hedeker D, Richmond MJ, Sokolovsky A, Mermelstein R. Modeling mood variation and covariation among adolescent smokers: application of a bivariate location-scale mixed-effects model. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 May;16 Suppl 2:S151-8. [See abstract.]

Piasecki TM, Trela CJ, Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ. Smoking antecedents: separating between-and within-person effects of tobacco dependence in a multiwave ecological momentary assessment investigation of adolescent smoking. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 May;16 Suppl 2:S119-26. [See abstract.]

Cannon DS, Mermelstein RJ, Hedeker D, Coon H, Cook EH, McMahon WM, Hamil C, Dunn D, Weiss RB. Effect of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor genes (CHRN) on longitudinal cigarettes per day in adolescents and young adults. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Feb;16(2):137-44. [See abstract.]

Abdollahi F, Case Lazarro ED, Listenberger M, Kenyon RV, Kovic M, Bogey RA, Hedeker D, Jovanovic BD, Patton JL. Error Augmentation Enhancing Arm Recovery in Individuals With Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Crossover Design. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013 Aug 8. [Epub ahead of print]

Kumar S, Nilsen WJ, Abernethy A, Atienza A, Patrick K, Pavel M, Riley WT, Shar A, Spring B, Spruijt-Metz D, Hedeker D, Honavar V, Kravitz R, Craig Lefebvre R, Mohr DC, Murphy SA, Quinn C, Shusterman V, Swendeman D. Mobile Health Technology Evaluation: The mHealth Evidence Workshop. Am J Prev Med. 2013 Aug;45(2):228-36.

Leon AC, Demirtas H, Li C, Hedeker D. Subject-level matching for imbalance in cluster randomized trials with a small number of clusters. Pharm Stat. In press.

Selya AS, Wakschlag LS, Dierker LC, Rose JS, Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ. Exploring alternate processes contributing to the association between maternal smoking and the smoking behavior among young adult offspring. Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Nov;15(11):1873-82. [See abstract.]

Dunton GF, Huh J, Leventhal AM, Riggs N, Hedeker D, Spruijt-Metz D, Pentz MA. Momentary assessment of affect, physical feeling states, and physical activity in children. Health Psychol. 2013 May 13. [Epub ahead of print]

Rose JS, Dierker LC, Hedeker D, Mermelstein R. An integrated data analysis approach to investigating measurement equivalence of DSM nicotine dependence symptoms. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Apr 1;129(1-2):25-32. [See abstract.]

Selya AS, Dierker LC, Rose JS, Hedeker D, Tan X, Li R, Mermelstein RJ. Time-varying effects of smoking quantity and nicotine dependence on adolescent smoking regularity. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013 Mar 1;128(3):230-7. [See abstract.]

Hedeker D, Nordgren R. MIXREGLS: A program for mixed-effects location scale analysis. J Stat Softw. Mar 2013;52(12):1-38. [See abstract.]

Spring B, Duncan JM, Janke EA, Kozak AT, McFadden HG, Demott A, Pictor A, Epstein LH, Siddique J, Pellegrini CA, Buscemi J, Hedeker D. Integrating technology into standard weight loss treatment: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Jan 28;173(2):105-11.

Liu LC, Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ. Modeling nicotine dependence: an application of a longitudinal IRT model for the analysis of Adolescent Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012 Nov 30;31(27):3328-36. [See abstract.]

Leon AC, Demirtas H, Li C, Hedeker D. Two propensity score-based strategies for a three-decade observational study: investigating psychotropic medications and suicide risk. Stat Med. 2012 Nov 30;31(27):3255-60.

Demirtas H, Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ. Simulation of massive public health data by power polynomials. Stat Med. 2012 Nov 30;31(27):3337-46. [See abstract.]

Li X, Hedeker D. A three-level mixed-effects location scale model with an application to ecological momentary assessment data. Stat Med. 2012 Nov 20;31(26):3192-210. [See abstract.]

Selya SA, Dierker LC, Rose JS, Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ. Risk factors for adolescent smoking: Parental smoking and the mediating role of nicotine dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012 Aug 1;124(3):311-8. [See abstract.]

Spring B, Schneider K, McFadden HG, Vaughn J, Kozak AT, Smith M, Moller AC, Epstein LH, Demott A, Hedeker D, Siddique J, Lloyd-Jones DM. Multiple behavior changes in diet and activity: a randomized controlled trial using mobile technology behavior changes in diet and activity. Arch Intern Med. 2012 May 28;172(10):789-96.

Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ, Demirtas H. Modeling between-subject and within-subject variances in ecological momentary assessment data using mixed-effects location scale models. Stat Med. 2012 Nov 30;31(27):3328-36.[See abstract.]

Moller AC, McFadden HG, Hedeker D, Spring B. Financial motivation undermines maintenance in an intensive diet and activity intervention. J Obes. 2012;740519.

Selya AS, Rose JS, Dierker LC, Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ. A practical guide to calculating Cohen's f(2), a measure of local effect size, from PROC MIXED. Front Psychol. 2012;3:111. [See abstract.]

Liu FX, Alexander GC, Crawford SY, Pickard AS, Hedeker D, Walton SM. The Impact of Medicare Part D on Out-of-Pocket Costs for Prescription Drugs, Medication Utilization, Health Resource Utilization, and Preference-Based Health Utility. Health Serv Res. 2011 Aug;46(4):1104-1123. [See abstract.]

Yin HJ, Lin SJ, Kong SX, Benzeroual K, Crawford SY, Hedeker D, Lambert BL, Muramatsu N. The association between physical functioning and self-rated general health in later life: The implications of social comparison. Appl Res Qual Life. 2011 Mar;6(1): 1-19.

Spring B, Schneider K, McFadden HG, Vaughn J, Kozak AT, Smith M, Moller AC, Epstein L, Russell SW, Demott A, Hedeker D. Make Better Choices (MBC): Study design of a randomized controlled trial testing optimal technology-supported change in multiple diet and physical activity risk behaviors. BMC Public Health. 2010 Sep 29;10(1):586. [See abstract.]

Gibbons RD, Hedeker D, DuToit S. Advances in analysis of longitudinal data. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2010 Apr 27;6:79-107. [See abstract.]

Muramatsu N, Yin H, Hedeker D. Functional declines, social support, and mental health in the elderly: Does living in a state supportive of home and community-based services make a difference? Soc Sci Med. 2010 Apr;70(7):1050-1058. [See abstract.]

Schneider KL, Hedeker D, Bailey KC, Cook JW, Spring B. A comment on analyzing addictive behaviors over time. Nicotine Tob Res. 2010 Apr;12(4):445-448. [See abstract.]

Liu LC, Hedeker D, Segawa E, Flay BR. Evaluation of Longitudinal Intervention Effects: an Example of Latent Growth Mixture Models for Ordinal Drug-Use Outcomes. J Drug Issues. 2010;40(1):27-43.

Friedman LS, Hedeker D, Richter ED. Long-term effects of repealing the national maximum speed limit in the United States. Am J Public Health. 2009 Sep;99(9):1626-1631. [See abstract.]

Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ, Berbaum ML, Campbell RT. Modeling mood variation associated with smoking: an application of a heterogeneous mixed-effects model for analysis of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data. Addiction. 2009 Feb;104(2):297-307. [See abstract.]

Colder CR, Flay BR, Segawa E, Hedeker D; TERN members. Trajectories of smoking among freshmen college students with prior smoking history and risk for future smoking: data from the University Project Tobacco Etiology Research Network (UpTERN) study. Addiction. 2008 Sep;103(9):1534-43.

Demirtas H, Hedeker D. An imputation strategy for incomplete longitudinal ordinal data. Stat Med. 2008 Sep 10;27(20):4086-4093. [See abstract.]

Demirtas H, Hedeker D. Imputing continuous data under some non-Gaussian distributions. Stat Neerl. 2008 May;62(2):193-205.

Spring B, Schneider K, Smith M, Kendzor D, Appelhans B, Hedeker D, Pagoto S. Abuse potential of carbohydrates for overweight carbohydrate cravers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 May;197(4):637-47. [See abstract.]

Spring B, Cook JW, Appelhans B, Maloney A, Richmond M, Vaughn J, Vanderveen J, Hedeker D. Nicotine effects on affective response in depression-prone smokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Feb;196(3):461-471.

Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ, Demirtas H. An application of a mixed-effects location scale model for analysis of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data. Biometrics. 2008;64(2):627-634. [See abstract.]

Weinstein SM, Mermelstein RJ, Hankin BL, Hedeker D, Flay BR. Longitudinal patterns of daily affect and global mood during adolescence. J Res Adolesc. 2007 Sep;17(3):587-600. [See abstract.]

Hedeker D, Mermelstein RJ, Demirtas H. Analysis of binary outcomes with missing data: missing = smoking, last observation carried forward, and a little multiple imputation. Addiction. 2007 Oct;102(10):1564-73. [See abstract.]

Leon AC, Hedeker D. Quantile stratification based on a misspecified propensity score in longitudinal treatment effectiveness analyses of ordinal doses. Comput Stat Data Anal. 2007 Aug 15;51(12):6114-6122. [See

Leon AC, Hedeker D. A comparison of mixed-effects quantile stratification propensity adjustment strategies for longitudinal treatment effectiveness analyses of continuous outcomes. Stat Med. 2007 Jun 15;26(13):2650-65.

Demirtas H, Hedeker D. Gaussianization-based quasi-imputation and expansion strategies for incomplete correlated binary responses. Stat Med. 2007 Feb 20;26(4):782-799. [See abstract.]

Leon AC, Demirtas H, Hedeker D. Bias reduction with an adjustment for participants' intent to dropout of a randomized controlled clinical trial. Clin Trials. 2007;4(5):540-547.

Liu LC, Hedeker D. A mixed-effects regression model for longitudinal multivariate ordinal data. Biometrics. 2006 Mar;62(1):261-268. [See abstract.]

Hedeker D, Berbaum M, Mermelstein RJ. Location-scale models for multilevel ordinal data: between- and within-subjects variance modeling. J Probab Stat Sci. 2006;4(1):1-20.

Honors and Awards

Fellow, American Statistical Association